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FUNDAMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY    ( FP )
Part I
      HYPER
physical MATERIALISM
            (The nature of PSYCHE)
      Chapter 6.
        SLEEP, DREAM, SLEEPLESSNESS
            6.2.  
The NATURE of routine phenomena

6.2.05.  HALLUCINATION

Hallucination is a very convenient term,          
removing from consideration all inexplicable
V.V. Nalimov/В.В. Налимов

и     A hallucination as a process is a dream out of a sleep. A hallucination as an individual perception image is a material (astralum) object which has been not embodied in physicum P (ghost).
    Somebody's hallucination can be generated by himself. Stages of such a ghost formation, of its autonomy development can be traced conveniently by an example of a visual hallucination.
    In the beginning an image of visual hallucination is exterated only within the eye. This is verified by that an image's (ghost's) size changes in a direct proportion with a distance from a screen, on which background it is projected (the farther is a screen the larger seems a ghost). It means, its size on a retina remains to be constant. Hence, it is located just there (on the retina).
    Next, as stability of an image and its brightness increase, it exterates already in external space. Then it submits to laws of geometrical optics. At observation them through devices (a field-glass, a prism) they change just the same way as physical objects do. At this exteration stage a hallucination (ghost) can be registered on a photosensitive material (be photographed) both with using of optical devices (camera), and without them (Krohalev G.P./Крохалев Г.П. [ 61 ]). An image can be brought out in the external space not only spontaneously (ghost), but also deliberately, which can be formed by training.

    "So E.N.Kabanova-Meller/Е.Н./Кабанова-Меллер develops interesting techniques of imagination images creation... Pupils of 11-12 years old were offered to consider two pictures in a geography textbook, and then to reproduce them by the verbal description, mentally placing one of them on a wall before itself, and another behind itself. It is interesting, that the description of the picture, placed behind, has been complicated. Pupils tried even to turn a head back and to look at a wall. This interesting fact observed by other researchers too, yet has not found a scientific explanation" (G.G. Granik/Г.Г. Граник [ 28, стр. 136]) –

    – we'll add: the explanation cannot be found - within the nowadays paradigm..
    And, at last, an image can not obey to the psyche which generated it. So-called teasing hallucinations [ 131 ] gives an example of such full autonomy. It is like awidely known phenomenon when literary characters get out of their authors' hands. A similar situation, but with an embodied product of imagination, has presented K.I. Chukovsky/К.И. Чуковский [ 137, p. 72 ]:

    Дали Мурочке тетрадь,
Стала Мура рисовать
... "Ну а это что такое,
Непонятное, чудное...?"–
"Это Бяка Закаляка Кусачая,
Я сама из головы её выдумала".–
... "Что ж ты бросила тетрадь.
Перестала рисовать?"–
"Я её боюсь!"

    [A little girl takes a pencil and begin to draw ... "What is this so strange...? " – "It is the Biting-Sullied-One, I've invented Her by myself".– " Why have you run away? "– "I am afraid of Her!"]   

    In connection with the hallucinations problem, consideration of the perception image reliability, of its (an image) adequacy in relation to a physical reality is pertinent. A process of perception is not passive reflection, unlike sensation. An image adequacy is provided by two-way communication: the perception systems have feedbacks (for example, the eye ÷ visual center system). The adequacy is not imperatively exact conformity of the reflected object, copying it. Reflection (perception, notion) is an active process, and an image must keep vestiges of this activity, individual in each separate act of reflection. In this there is a potential source of observation mistakes. And only from this point of view the position of agnosticism, (Kant's [1724-1804]) idea of thing-in-itself is seemed lawful (but not as of incognizability in principle).
    Perception, is always polymodal, unlike monomodal sensation. The image of notion can be monomodal too, i.e. can be based upon sensations of only one quality (either visual, or hearing, etc.), owing to abstractiveness, peculiar to notion. The perception image is always concrete. So, it is possible to have a notion of light, but to perceive it is possible only concrete source of light (a lamp, a star in the sky etc). To generate a perception image on a basis of only one sensation modality (for example, by photo) is possible just and only due to the previous experience. If we see a table we perceive it not only as a thing of the certain size, form, color... It is clear to us, that it is firm, strong, heavy, etc. The created image is quite adequate to the real object and only due to that before we repeatedly not only saw many tables, but also put on them weights, moved them, knocked on them, and in the early childhood, surely, did not refuse itself to lick a table in order to by means of one more modality sensation be convinced of its reality.
    The truth of this thesis becomes especially evident at analysis of perception mistakes. When we see a table in a mirror (not knowing that this is just mirror, or what a mirror is in general), so we perceive it (the table) the same precisely with all its features, attributes, characteristics though the table is not really present, the mirror is present.
    Strictly speaking, it is a perception mistake. However, if we want to touch the reflected table (to add sensation of one more modality, to use the trial criterion KT – see section 2.1), we'll certainly not be able to do it, for the hand will stumble on the mirror, and so the mistake will be revealed and will be corrected. The perception becomes again adequate, and experience - enriched. A subject learns an object, only influencing upon it (Milashevich V.V./Милашевич В.В. [ 82, p. 33]).
    Psychiatry knows hallucinations of all modalities without exception. Therefore it is reasonable to believe in existence in principle of hallucinations possessing all modalities simultaneously, i.e. such which are indistinguishable for a person from real (physical) objects. This belief is proved completely by psychiatric practice [ 8 ]. Hallucination is the reality by its nature, though rather original (the stralum) reality from the common point of view.
    A hallucination can be dangerous by its maintenance, its subjects. For example, it can have a character of external threat, so terrible, that it is "better" to die at once, than to continue to be exposed to this threat; can provoke a new use of a drug; can tempt to a suicide (attempt of suicide) too. So, one alcoholic (Victor N.), who was on a bridge, was invited by green devils in ice water: look how well we bathe here, how good it is here, jump to us. Devils of different sizes – from such tiny, that they can be located on a palm, up to large, much more than average human growth, single or groups – are not unique but typical maintenance of alcoholic hallucination; usually they are provokers, ostensibly benevolent.
    As a criterion of difference of a hallucination from a physical reality (from "that to touch is possible" - if only visual hallucinations are meant) could be inadequate behaviour of a hallucinating person. But this criterion can also be disputable. For example, the phenomenon which in psychiatry is considered a pathology and is named endoscopic or visceral hallucination (i.e. vision of one's internal organs), may be treated not as a pathology at all. V.N.Pushkin evidences [ 109, p. 335]: repeatedly we observed and registered paranormal diagnostics. This ability is find out in definition of internal organs state of a sick person... Specific perception of such a kind can be mastered by means of purposeful training.
    While a person controls (by his mentalum SM) an astralum object which he observes - and consequently which he can remove too (a physical object cannot be removed in such a way) - it is more rightly to speak not about a hallucination but about a phantom..

    In psychiatry, in NAS mechanisms of hallucinations are considered to be unknown: The psychophysiological essence of hallucinations is not found out finally [ 8 ]. Despite of this, they are considered as the certain attribute of psyche pathology/inferiority, and are to be suppressed with neuroleptics, irrespective

of their concrete contents.

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