7.1. Psychological HIERARCHY of alive
All alive objects, individuals as possessors/carriers/bearers of their psyche, can be classified by a degree of their perfection – by, accordingly, such parameters as complexity of their behaviour, as their ability to avoid mistakes, as a degree of their mastering of the mentalum stratum of Being or, what is the same, as a degree of development mentalum level of their own psyche, as, at last, a level of their memory organization (more details about memory are in section 8.2).
same, on stable and rigid (nevertheless practically reliable/faultless) connections channels with UDI (see the conclusion h). An organism has fact memory or memory only about the elementary facts, actual for life-support. Anew learning/mastering is impossible at this level (for a separate individual, not for a population/species).
At that all the mass of alive is easily divided into several qualitatively different levels (though without sharp borders between them).
In the basis of a pyramid (fig. 16) organisms occur – carriers/possessors/bearers of only the simplest psyche functions:
• sensations, abilities to recognize separate properties, characteristics of the environment, and
• rigid stereotypes of reaction to these sensations
– bearers of only unconditioned (by È.Ï. Ïàâëîâ/I.P. Pavlov) reflexes, of the instincts based on only genetic (species) memory, or, that is the
There are reasons to ascribe to this level also smaller, suborganismal objects-individuals, for example, separate cells (in particular – monocellular organisms) and cellular organelles [ 58 ], but this consideration is not principle: in their psyche functions the mentalum level is practically not used too.
The next level of the pyramid – an essence – is characteristic by ability of perception of the external (relatively psyche) world, by presence of consciousness as abilities to receive, accumulate and use knowledge (data, information) about it (about the world, and about itself – as the world part) on the basis of own, individual situation memory (in addition to the fact, species one) – about various situations, about corresponding own emotional states, about corresponding ways of own behaviour (reactions, preacts using). All these allow to optimize a behaviour, choosing (making active) certain preacts (and blocking the others), to avoid recurrence of mistakes, using the conditional reflex mechanism. A butterfly burns and again flies in fire, a dog will not burn itself for the second time.
Further – the person – presence/using of his mentalum stratum multi-layer-ness (a number of sub-strata/sub-layers is not in principle limited). It is a human level (of the pyramid) – presence of abilities ((of psyche phenomena) of the second order (and still higher), of knowledge about his own knowledge, selfconsciousness, or self-(auto-)reflexion, intellect, abilities of thinking, of abstract representations, concepts, speech (of "the second – by I.P. Pavlov – signal system" – also of the second order, but not only of the second by count), of intellectual memory (besides the fact and situation ones). While an animal can take pleasure (for example, from tasty meal), a person can experience pleasure from consciousness, that he takes pleasure, which is possible to define as pleasure of the second order (or as enjoyment). At this level an ability arises to suppress deliberately expedient reflexes (on the basis of preliminary comprehension) reasoning from prudence of the supreme order, sometimes – to the detriment of the person himself. Mistakes can be expected and avoided "from the first attempt" (using the situation analysis and/or another's mistakes experience). è