(Mehanisms of evolution)
7.7. An ORGAN and its FUNTION
The practice of pathopsychology testifies, that the certain damages of the brain always cause respective derangements of functions. Usually a direct conclusion is made from this true premise: that the brain generates psyche, that the brain is primary, and the psyche is secondary. But in such direct conclusion there is not more logic than in a statement that a cockroach is afraid by its paws: it's afraid and escapes, but if its paws are torn off, it does not escape because is not afraid.
This approach to decision the problem of the ratio of structure and its function was arisen in mechanics where all is evident and mathematically (within the limits of elementary mathematics) unambiguously, where energy is considered only as a way of bodies, weights, material points – i.e. of substance – to interact. Only two kinds of energy are known to mechanics: the kinetic and potential ones. Neither one, nor another are not thought without the substance as carrier of energy. At the same time the substance can be thought as though deprived of energy (for example, kinetic energy of a body in the state of relative rest is equal to zero), can as though do without it, can exist irrespective of it. A mechanic can always touch, feel a substance thing, but not energy at all, let it kinetic or potential. Thus, substance is the independent and primary form of a matterin mechanics , and energy is dependent and secondary one.
From mechanics this point of view was extended upon other disciplines, branches of a science too. So, a physicist, considering a quantum, a photon, thinks of it by all means as once (at some moment) and somewhere emited by some substance. And he can imagine substance as not emitting any quantum out. The same in biology: the body which is a carrier of a function, can not fulfill it, be in rest, but the function, as a result of body's activity, is not thought without this body. Body is a structure constructed with substance; function is a power phenomenon.
While in mechanics such views can really be considered as correct for both components of the matter are here so closely connected, that the question on the primate of one of them could be only academic one, could not be transferred in the sphere of experiment, so already in physics the preference should be given to energy: substance can be conceived as a clod of energy, a particle can be described as a wave package, as a de Broglie's wave (L. de Broglie, 1892-1987).
In biology to admit the primacy of substance is unacceptable at all. Of course substance and energy, structure and function are closely connected, mutually dependent here too as a hen and an egg in a known children's riddle, however not structure (an element of the physium) generates function (an element of the astralum), but both of them are generated by an egregor (an element of the mentalum). And at that a function is primary: it is the purpose of development of a structure. And, on the contrary, a structure is regressed if its function is abolished.
So, adult Ascidiae (sea squirts) lose rudiments of their morphological traits, characteristic of vertebrates since they are not used, are not supported functionally [ 10 ].
So, biochemical development of a visual cortex in parts of proteins pool and enzymes activity is late at light deprivation [ 21, ñòð. 805].
So, an extremity immobilization conducts to a dystrophy, to return development of its muscles, to degradation. It becomes appreciably thinner, than another which continues to be used. And if to repeat a permanent immobilization in a row of generations, the degradation will even, probably, earlier or later be genetically fixed. At least, it is established experimentally concerning bacteria: the bacteria, capable to develop enzyme, but placed in medium with its superfluity, lose this ability through some tens generations (some about 50 divisions) [ 40 ].
The leading factor both for structure, and for function (for its physical/physiological component) is psyche.
So, P.P. Podjapolsky/Ïîäúÿïîëüñêèé notes, that all physiological attributes of a second degree burn an be cause by suggestion without any physical hot influence [ 98 ].
So, Stanislav Grof notes: it is interesting from the theoretical point of view, that it is possible to experience [in LSD-sessions – À.Ì.] pains and other sensations concerning to earlier operations made under a deep general narcosis, - i.e. in states when the brain has been reliably blocked from receipt of any information by physical channels [ 31, ñòð. 37].
If a patient informs (at his anamnesis gathering), that his mother does not know that he smokes, and she should not know it, that therefore in her home (in another city) he both doesn't smoke, but doesn't feel he need to as long time as he stays there - let it be a week or a month, but however as soon as he returns to his place, he suffers again without smoking, so it is difficult to admit that the reason of these changes, repeatedly observed (meaning introspections), lays at a level of an organism, physiology or, especially, chemistry.
Though psyche, at least in usual daily conditions, depends on the brain, on its structure (both in norm, and in a pathology), but substance of a brain is neither source nor reason of psyche, and is only its support and its tool... On the same nervous substratum... can be played completely various psychological [(? more likely: psychial - À.Ì..] processes... (O.K. Tikhomirov/Î.Ê. Òèõîìèðîâ, [ 125, ñòð. 12]). By EEG it is impossible to tell, either the child laughs or cries (Ju.A. Makarenko/Þ.À. Ìàêàðåíêî [ 77 ]).
N.A. Bernstein/Í.À. Áåðíøòåéí (1896-1966) notes which brain structures support/provide complex processes of complicated movement (industrial, sports, etc.) activity [ 12 ], but he does not note however, that morphological and even physiological full value of body, a brain in particular, does not guarantees its functional value yet. Speech, for example, really, cannot be mastered without basing upon genetically prepared brain structures, but presence of this base does not guarantee itself development of speech yet. Morton Hunt marks [ 134, ñòð. 19]: In 3-4 months the baby starts to murmur... observations over deaf children show, that they do the same, - but without speech (sound) practice, the murmur vanishes, the speech potentiality of the brain is not realized.
Any (only one) of this facts would be sufficient to make an inevitable
CONCLUSION: the brain supports, provides psyche, but does not create, does not generate it; the substance of the brain is not its source and reason, but is only its support and tool – even if to admit that its functioning is impossible without brain (and such opportunity is the theme of following chapters).
A psychologist, engaged in studying of the brain, resembles a musicologist, trying to study which music will be played on a piano by its construction. Psyche does not sit inside the brain, as well as a melody does not sit inside a flute.
In ontogenesis the structure/"morphology" is realized/embodied first, and after that it is mastered functionally. And the more difficultly the "morphology" is, the more time it is necessary for this mastering. Breath is mastered by a person in some minutes or even seconds; abilities of a hand and speech - in years; to master the brain abilities, the majority of people does not have even whole life enough.