In mathematics the concept of information is substituted for the concept of quantity (it is identified with quantity of information); at that it isn’t even quantity of some definitely known, but is quantity of absent, eliminated vagueness. A unit of "bit" is accepted to evaluate this quantity. If an answer to a question of type as «YES or NOT?» («WHITE or BLACK?», «0 or 1?») was unknown, and became then known, so, irrespective of what this question was about, the vagueness quantity has decreased on one bit, or information quantity has increased on 1 bit.
In physics the concept of information is substituted for the concept of signal (it is identified with a signal, bearing a code of information). Both a signal and a code are physical concepts (objects). But neither an informational code nor, moreover, a signal (its support) are information. If a code has lost communication with its coding language, it cannot be deciphered, decoded, it loses its information, it ceases to be a code. And a language is not a physical object (phenomenon, concept).
In philosophy, all the more: it is admitted only that there is no commonly accepted notion of information.
Objectively (ontologically), information is a kind (form, type) of matter, of objective reality [ a1 ]. Information of this (any) thing (physical object) existence is real not less, than the subject itself is real. Information is non-physical matter. Each concrete information ("an information portion") is metaphysical object.
Subjectively, from the human point of view (gnoseologically), information is knowledge, is everything that is already known, that could be known, and/or that will be known.
From this (human, anthropocentrical) point of view one can distinguish
• information, only a separate person possesses which (information which is possessed by only a separate person). If in this bouquet you like a white rose more than any other, so only you possess this information. Therefore there is no criteria for appraisal (at least for objective appraisal) of truth÷falsity of such kind of information in principle (at least, by to-day's conceptions) ;
• information, a group possesses which (yesterday was rainy) or the mankind does (the moon phases change cyclically). Information of this category coincides practically with the notion of scientific knowledge; there can be many criteria here for appraisal of truth÷falsity, including those accepted in researches, in legal (in particular, criminological), sport practice etc.;
• information, to nobody known but which could in principle be known (nobody knows how many pears has ripened in Mrs. Pear’s garden last year, but they could be counted then). That information which can be mastered (become known) in the future can be referred hither too.
Each information is objective. Even a false information (for example, a false thought), must be admitted as an objective reality: since a thought (as an event) was a fact, so this fact cannot be already changed. The fact, that now you like already a tea-rose the best instead of the white one, does not influence upon the other fact, that a minute ago you liked it.
Information and thought are identical qualitatively; distinction is quantitative, in particular – in time: a thought remains in consciousness only short time and is then replaced by anther thought; while information both was an objective reality, and remains to be it.
But this distinction is very important. è