FUNDAMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY ( FP )
(The nature of PSYCHE)
Chapter 2. DISTANT PERCEPTION (DP)
2.4. INFORMATION and THOUGHT
Information is objectively, ontologically a kind of matter, is reality/hypersubstance of some special/original quality;
subjectively, gnoseologically and anthropocentrically (from the human point of view) information is a knowledge, is all already known, and/or will be known.
In mathematics the concept of information is substituted with the concept of quantity of information (is identified with it), of amount of knowledge (quantity of certainly known, or quantity of absent uncertainty).
In physics the concept of information is (usually) substituted with concept of a signal (is identified with it) which carries a code of the information.
From the human point of view (anthropocentrically) it is possible to distinguish
• information which a separate person – and only (s)he – possesses (among all roses of this bouquet, I like best the white one), and only at any present moment (in a minute I can already prefer a pink one); criteria to estimate (at least, to estimate objectively) the truth-or-falsity of this information category are absent in principle (at least, by today's ideas);
• information which a group of persons possesses (it was raining yesterday) or all mankind (moon's phases vary cyclically); the information of this category practically coincides with concept scientific knowledge; there can be here a lot of criteria to estimate the truth-or-falsity, including accepted in research practice, in legal, sports and so on;
• information, to nobody known but which could be (is potentially) known (nobody knows how many roses bloomed a year ago in the Rosa Bloom's garden, but they could be counted then); it is possible (necessary) to attribute to this category that information too, which can be mastered (can become known) in the future.
Each information is objective. Even a false information (a false thought), should be recognized as objective reality in the sense that, if a thought (as an event) was a fact, so it is already impossible to change this fact, and it does depend neither on conformity to other facts (for example, to truth), nor on our (someone's) attitude to it. The fact, that now I like best the pink rose, does not cancel another fact, that a minute ago I liked the white one.
Admitting of a thought (information in general) as the self-sufficient (valuable) matter form, but not only as result of the processes occurring in substance, let it be even specifically organized (the brain), does not contradict opposition of ideal and material, if to limit material as physical. However it is conceived more correctly methodologically (and, accordingly, more productively too) to admit validity of ideal and concrete opposition, and at that to admit both of them as material (as objectively existing).
Universal, but also boundless, totality of information uniting all conceivable variants of information, which was just named UDI ( the Universal Depot of Information) in the very first of author's publications on psychology [1À], – may be identified with traditional concepts of Cosmic Consciousness, Universal Reason, Divine Logos, etc.
Information and thought are qualitatively identical, indiscernible; distinction is quantitative, concerning time: a thought remains in consciousness only short time and is then replaced by other thoughts, while information was in UDI and remains in it. But this distinction it very important.
Conceptions of information prevailing in NS (nowadays science) are equivocal and indistinct. The interpretation by  academician A.D. Ursul/À.Ä. Óðñóë in ÔÝÑ (Philosophic Encyclopedic Wordbook, 1983) may be considered as official opinion of NS; he marked: However there is no one common definition of concept of I. The situation has not changed during elapsed 20 years: the Information is … the phenomenon, … nature of which remains still not found out (academician K.V. Sudakov/Ê.Â. Ñóäàêîâ, 2001 [ 148, page 8]).
The offered here concept of information as a part of hyperphysicum, as one of material (hyper)substances, is a base component of the statments declared by the author in IAASD (the International Association of Authors of Science Discoveries) as opening and registered in 1999 as a hypothesis, with a priority from 1987.